Over the years, scientists have studied the way cells within organisms communicate. Electric signals play a crucial role in the development, growth and healing processes.
Additional Readings and Literature
Juno Biomedical, Inc. is built on years of research. The following is a list of papers that support the use of electrotaxis as a potential means of returning significant motor function to people who have experienced an ischemic stroke. Of most significance is the recent paper published by Feng and team earlier this year:
Feng J, Lui J, Zhang L, Jiang J, Russell M, Lyeth B, Nolta J, Zhao M. 2017. Electrical Guidance of Human Stem Cels in the Rat Brain. Stem Cell Reports. 9: 1-13
Stroke Model (mammalian studies):
Morimoto T, Yashuhara T, Kameda M, Baba T, Kuramoto S, Kondo A, Takahashi K, Tajiri N, Wang F, Meng J. 2011. Striatal stimulation nurtures endogenous neurogenesis and angiogenesis in chronic-phase ischemic stroke rats. Cell Transplantation. 20 (7):1049-1064
Baba T, Kameda M, Yasuhara T, Morimoto T, Kondo A, Shingo T, Tajiri N, Wang F, Miyoshi Y, Boriongan C V. 2009. Electrical stimulation of the cerebral cortex exerts antiopoptotic, angiogenic, and anti-inflammatory effects in ischemic stroke rats through phosphoinositide 3-kinase/akt signaling pathway. Stroke. 40 (11): 598-605.
Xiang Y, Liu H, Yan T, Zhuang Z, Jin D, Peng Y. 2014. Functional electrical stimulation-facilitated proliferation and regeneration of neural precursor cells in the brains of rats with cerebral infarction. Neural Regeneration research. 9 (3):243-51
Liu H, Xiang Y, Yan T, Tan Z, Li S, He X. 2013. Functional electrical stimulation increases neural stem/progenitor cell proliferation and neurogenesis in the subventricular zone of rats with stroke. Chinese Medical Journal. 126 (12): 2361-2367
Traumatic Brain Injury Model (mammalian studies):
Jahanshahi A, Schonfeld L, Janssen M L F, Hescham S, Kocabicak E, Steinbusch H W M, Van Overbeeke J J, Temel Y. 2013. Electrical stimulation of the motor cortex enhances progenitor cell migration in the adult rat brain. Experimental Brain Research. 231 (2):165-177
Spinal Cord Injury Model (mammalian studies):
Borgens R B, Blight A R, McGinnis M E. 1987. Behavioral recovery induced by applied electric fields after spinal cord hemisection in guinea pig. Science, New Series. 238 (4825):366-369
Borgens R B, Toombs J P, Widmer W R, Waters D, Harbath A M, March P, Adams L G. 1999. An imposed oscillating electrical field improves the recovery of function in neurologically complete paraplegic dogs. Journal of Neurotrauma. 16 (7):639-657
Wound Healing Model (mammalian studies/tissue slices)
Shen Y, Pfluger T, Ferrareira F, Liang J, Navedo MF, Zeng Q, Reid B, Zhao M. 2016. Diabetic cornea wounds produce significantly weaker electric signals that may contribute to impaired healing. Scientific Reports. 6:26525
Zhao M, Song B, Pu J, Wada T, Reid B, Tai G, Wang F, Guo A, Walczysko P, Gu Y, et al. 2006.
Electrical signals control wound healing through phosphatidylinositol-4-OH kinase-y and PTEN. Nature. 442 (7101):457-460
Zhao Z, Watt C, Karystinou A, Roelofs A J, McCaig C D, Gibson I R, De Bari C. 2011. Directed migration of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells in a physiological direct current electric field. European Cells and Materials. 22:344-358
Investigative (mammalian studies):
Feng J, Liu J, Zhang X, Zhang L, Jiang J, Nolta J, Zhao M. 2012. Brief report: guided migration of neural stem cells derived from human embryonic stem cells by an electric field. Stem Cells. 30:349-355
Cao L, Wei D, Reid B, Zhao S, Pu J, Pan T, Yamoah E, Zhao M. 2013. Endogenous electric current might guide rostral migration of neuroblasts. EMBO Reports. 14 (2):184-190
Onuma, EK & Hui, SW, 1988, ‘Electric field-directed cell changes, displacement, and cytoskeletal reorganization are calcium dependent’, The Journal of Cell Biology, vol. 106, pp. 2067-2075.
Pullar, CE, Baier, BS, Kariya, Y, Russell, AJ, Horst BA, Marinkowich, MP, Isseroff RR 2006, ‘Beta4 integrin and epidermal growth factor coordinately regulate electric field-mediated directional migration via Rac1,’ Molecular Biology of the Cell, vol. 17, no. 11, pp. 4925-4935. 10.1091/mbc.E06-05-0433
Liu J, Zhu Bangfu, Zhang G, Wang J, Tian W, Ju G, Wei X, Song B. 2015. Electric signals regulate directional migration of ventral midbrain derived dopaminergic neural progenitor cells via Wnt/GSK3B signals. Experimental Neurology. 263: 113-121
Neural Stem and Progenitor Cells (cell culture studies):
Zhang, J, Calafiore, M, Zeng, Q, Zhang, X, Huang, Y, Li, RA, Deng, W, & Zhao, M 2011, Electrically guiding migration of human induced pluripotent stem cells, Stem Cell Reviews, vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 987-996. doi: 10.1007/s12015-011-9247-5
Kobelt L J, Wilkinson A E, McCormick A M, Rebecca K W, Leipzig N C. 2014. Short duration electrical stimulation to enhance neurite outgrowth and maturation of adult neural stem progenitor cells. Annals of Biomedical Engineering. 40 (10): 2164-2176
Meng X, Arocena M, Penninger J, Gage F H, Zhao M, Song B. 2011. PI3K mediated electrotaxis of embryonic and adult neural progenitor cells in the presence of growth factors. Experimental Neurology. 227 (1):210-217